Where Were You on April 11, 1968?

At 1000 hours on 11 April 1968, Secretary of Defense Clark M. Clifford announced at a news conference that 24,500 men in some 88 units from the reserve components of the Army, Navy, and Air Force and 3600 members of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) would be mobilized. The mobilization order was dated that same day, and directed the call-up to occur on 13 May (M-Day). Seventy-six Army National Guard (ARNG) and US Army Reserve (USAR) units, with a strength of 20,034, were actually mobilized. In addition, 2752 members of the Individual Ready Reserve (IRR) were called up. There were two objectives for the 13 May 1968 mobilization: (I) to provide troops for actual deployment to Vietnam, and (2) to provide troops to build up the strategic reserves in the United States. Forty-three units were deployed to Vietnam, and 33 units remained in the United States. Clark Clifford replaced Robert McNamara on 1 March 1968.

The 434th Tactical Airlift Wing was initially mentioned but was narrowed down to the 71st Tactical Airlift Squadron of the 930th Tactical Airlift Group at Bakalar AFB, Columbus, IN. The mobilization caught most reservists of the 71st TAS off-guard. As we approach the 50th anniversary of the call-up, here are reservist's recollections of that event. If you were an activated 71st reservist and would like to add your recollection of that day, please send it to the webmaster.

Al Heuss | Dale Burgan | John Roseborough | Paul Werner | John Lewis
Earl Wall | Phil Bender

Jim Alvis
Aircraft Mechanic/Crew Chief, Phan Rang

I was working in the Engineering Department at Citizens Gas & Coke Utility (Indianapolis). Someone in the department heard an announcement on the radio that the 434th Tactical Airlift Wing at Columbus, IN had been called to active duty. I was stunned. I had joined the reserve unit to avoid being drafted and possibly going to Vietnam. Concern and fear set in immediately. Later reports indicated only the 930th Tactical Airlift Group had been activated, and ultimately the 71st Tactical Airlift Squadron. I asked myself how in the world was ‘our’ unit selected out of all of the other C-119 squadrons around the country. I’m still not sure I understand, but it does not make any difference now. I had joined the 434th in December, 1964 and thought I would be safe. Without question, I wanted to be in the Air Force rather than any other military branch – I just thought I would be less likely of possibly going to Vietnam during that vulnerable period.

When I joined the reserve unit, I had the opportunity to choose between two AFSCs – reciprocating engine aircraft mechanic, and I don’t recall the other. I immediately chose aircraft mechanic. At the time of the call-up, I was a three-striper (Airman First Class), and was assigned as crew chief of C-119G #51-7996. TSgt. Don Jerrels was the line supervisor.

I was single, had completed a two-year degree at Purdue Extension at Indianapolis and was working full-time. Earlier in 1968 I had purchased a new Chevrolet Camaro Z-28. Following the call-up, I had to sell the Z-28 and use a Corvair for my transportation - that was my big disappointment of the call-up – it interrupted my ‘muscle-car’ days. Being single and 25, it was not as big of lifestyle disruption as I thought. In retrospect, the whole active duty experience was rewarding. I did not like it at the time, but I would not trade it for anything.

Herman A. Heuss  Col USAFR (Retired)
Pilot, Crew #20, Nha Trang - Shadow 4

My story has to begin a few days before the call-up announced on 11 APR 68. The riots that followed the assassination of Martin Luther King were at a peak the weekend of April 6-7 1968. The 71st UTA was interrupted on Saturday 6 Apr when 9 aircrews were assembled early in the evening and directed to depart for Fort Benning, GA ASAP. The departures were scheduled for about 2200 hours at 10 minute intervals. My crew was assigned to good old AC 51-8028, one that I had trouble with on numerous occasions. However all went well until the engine run-up check when the left engine had a severe mag drop with intermittent backfiring. We pulled out of the line-up and attempted to clear the problem but nothing worked. The maintenance delay and a take-off after midnight and a 0230 landing at Fort Benning put us at the end of a line of more than 45 C-119s.

During a mission briefing on Sunday we were told that troops and equipment were being assembled for transport to Washington, DC to control riots in the city. Aircraft would be loaded and take-offs would be scheduled when flights could be sequenced into Andrews AFB traffic.  My aircraft was loaded with three jeeps and six personnel during the early evening hours and we were finally airborne at 2115 hours.

On the flight to Andrews AFB I ate a sandwich from a sack lunch provided by the Army. This and one other element became a factor during the mission. There was no fuel available for refueling at Fort Benning so we departed knowing that a refueling stop would be needed somewhere between Andrews AFB and Bakalar. After landing at Andrews we were informed to “get unloaded and depart ASAP” as ramp space was limited and refueling would not be approved. A decision was made to stop at Pope AFB NC for fuel and then try to make it to Bakalar even though violation of crew rest was evident. At 0130 and 45 minutes after departing Andrews AFB I became violently ill with severe abdominal pain. I exited the flight deck leaving Lt Col Hatton at the controls and sought refuge in the latrine on the cargo deck. The pain I was experiencing was so severe I could not stand up straight. In what seemed like only a few minutes the flight engineer informed me that Lt Col Hatton had become ill and was having difficulty flying the AC and that I had to come back up front. I managed to get back into the left seat and immediately declared an emergency and requested priority clearance into Pope AFB, NC. We were about 25 minutes from landing and requested that emergency medical equipment meet the AC on landing. I vaguely remember landing the AC straight ahead on runway 23, stopping the AC on the runway, shutting down the engines and observing the ambulances pulling up beside the left side. I remember the medical personnel getting me out of the cockpit and into the ambulance. I regained consciousness in the hospital at noon on Monday. The attending physician told me that I was severely dehydrated and would remain in the hospital another 24 hours. When I described the food I had consumed on the flight the physician surmised that food poisoning was the problem. Since it appeared that no one had informed my family of the incident, I called my wife Helen and advised her of my problem still not knowing for sure what had caused my illness. Bakalar personnel were notified of our situation and they made arrangements for our return to Bakalar on Tuesday 9 Apr. The attending physician, after being unable to schedule a me-evac flight, reluctantly released me for the flight home in a C-119 from Bakalar.

I drove myself home on Wednesday because there was no other way to get home. Following medical advice I made an appointment at the Muncie Clinic for Thursday morning 11 APR. My doctor informed me that I was still very ill and gave me a prescription for pain medication with instructions not to return to work for two weeks. When I arrived home about 1115 hours my wife was in tears. I asked her if a call from the doctor had been bad news. The answer was no and she told me that a television program had just been interrupted to announce the recall of the 930th Tactical Airlift Group and all its squadrons for two years with a reporting date of 13 May 1968. WOW!! What a week. This also was the day I learned that the massive explosion in downtown Richmond, Indiana on 5 Feb had destroyed the State office assigned to my area.  Fortunately, the staff was not on duty and not injured. Now what? The four children were all school age, six, ten, thirteen and fourteen. The events of the previous week had them really wondering what might happen next. Added to all this was the fact that I had been “temporarily removed from flying status” and would be medically evaluated later.

I returned to work on Monday 15 APR still suffering from the effects of the food poisoning with the awesome task of dealing with the destroyed office in Richmond and preparing for a military leave of absence from my job with the State of Indiana. All went well except the food poisoning illness impaired my ability to digest food and in the next few weeks I lost over thirty pounds. The family matter-of-factly accepted the reality of the recall and did not seem disturbed by the lack of information about where and how the 930th would be serving. However there were rumors that the Unit might be involved in an effort to retrieve the Pueblo from North Korea. For my part the recall would not be financially troubling because my military pay would be substantially more than my civilian pay. By report time on 13 May we had done all we could to prepare for my tour of active duty.

My tour of duty with the 71st Troop Carrier Squadron began at Bakalar AFB, IN in1958. The unit had retired their C-46’s and had been equipped with C-119G’s. I had flown C-119’s on AD at Sewart AFB, TN and Pope AFB, NC for three years prior to my release from AD in 1956.  I had attained the rating of a Troop Carrier Pilot and Aircraft Commander in 1954 and had extensive experience in paratroop and heavy equipment operations. As a 1st Lt I was one of a group of “younger” pilots assigned to the 71st under the command of Lt Col James MacMaster. With over 1000 hours of time in C-119G’s I quickly re-qualified as an aircraft commander. During Summer Camp 1959 I upgraded to IP and SEFE. At time of the call-up in 1968 I had attained the rank of Major and was in a Flight Commander position in the Squadron. TOP

Dale Burgan
Loadmaster/IO, Crew #3, TSN

My motto in life should be "why do today what you can put off till tomorrow". With that in mind, I waited till the till the draft was nipping at my heals to get in the military. When they told me at Bakaler they could make me a loadmaster, I was excited. I always wanted to fly and this would be my opportunity

I enjoyed the training weekends, and the occasional trips we took as aircrew. In fact, I didn’t mind a bit that as part of the riot control, I would be allowed to go to Ft. Benning pick up some troops, and take them to Washington. I was fortunate that I never ate any of the tainted sandwiches. (See Herman Heuss’s story above)  As near as I can tell, my weekend trip ended on Monday, which would have left me with a short paycheck. I lived from hand to mouth in those days.

During the trip, my NCOIC (CMSGT Robert Xanders) said that likely they would want us to return to Washington and take the troops back home. I was back to work on the 11th when I got that phone call from him saying I was needed. I explained to him that since I had already missing work Monday, I would prefer not to go. I did say that if he could not find anybody, call me back and I would go.

About an hour later, I was summoned to the phone again. Going to the phone, I knew that that would be that call and I would be off to Washington again. I was happy to find out that it was my then girlfriend. She also worked at Bakaler, and shock of shocks, she informed me that it was on the radio that we were activated effective 13 May.

This could not have happened at a worse time, as I was building a house and starting to get established in life (also called growing up). But the experience left me far richer than I would have been without it. I feel we saved a few lives, killed a few banana trees and saw things that I would never have seen. TOP

John Roseborough
Aircraft Mechanic, Nha Trang

Where were you when you learned of the activation? (At work, school, or what) I was at home.
How did you learn about the activation? The evening news.
What was your first reaction when you learned of the activation?
Surprised and perplexed.
Did you have any idea that the unit would be called to active duty? No! I was aware that it had been activated for 30 days or so during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Where were you living at the time? Louisville, Kentucky.
Were you married at that time? Did you have children at that time? I was married and had a 7 month old son.
How did the activation affect your job, school, personal life?
It definitely screwed things up. I was a pilot for a company in Louisville and the activation was costly and it required a move with my wife and young son.
How did you approach the activation? Concerned, but I knew that it was my obligation and I believed it was my duty.
What was your rank at the time of activation? A1C
What was your AFSC Airplane General Mechanic.
Who did you report to at Bakalar at that time? MSgt Walt Pease
How much reserve time did you have left at the time of activation? Four years.
Why did you join the Air Force Reserve at Columbus?
I had joined at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as I was soon to be drafted into the Army and wanted to avoid going to Viet Nam, given a rifle and placed in the jungle to become cannon fodder. Since I had relocated to Louisville, I joined the Columbus, Indiana reserve unit. I fully believed that I would likely be killed over there, but strongly felt that it was my patriotic duty and responsibility. Upon arrival at Nha Trang, I was very apprehensive and very uneasy. Overall, the experience was rewarding and since we were in a war zone, upon return to continental US. I was offered the opportunity to be placed inactive with no more weekend meetings or summer camp, which I jumped at and remained so until my enlistment was fulfilled in 1972. TOP

Paul A. Werner
Flight Engineer, Crew #15, Phan Rang

As an Air Reserve Technician (ART), I was at work at Bakalar when the recall was announced. Along with other ART co-workers, Mailen Thomas, Ron Edington, Squire Riley, John Strubbe, Michael Turner, Bob Eckstein, Richard Hupp, Paul Olmstead, Ron Penrose, Donald Wyatt, and William McNeeley, we were all working for either Orville Smith or Donald Jerrels at that time. As Civil Service aircraft mechanics during the week, we became Air Force Reserve Flight Mechanics/Engineers on UTA weekends and additional ATP activities. Needless to say, the recall really surprised me and was totally unexpected. My wife and I had just got married two months earlier and were living in Columbus at Williamsburg Apartments. Initially I was pretty excited because most of us thought we would only be re-training the "regular" Air Force types on their retired C-119's. The real awakening came soon afterwards as we transferred to Lockbourne AFB, OH. As the mission became clearer, we soon realized we would be accompanying our fellow "regulars" to Vietnam, as well. After learning this, the initial excitement turned to immediate concern. After all, I had already been honorably discharged from my original enlistment in the Air Force in October 1965, as a Crew-Chief on B-52G aircraft at Loring AFB, Maine. I fully accepted the responsibility that my job required enlisting in the Air Force Reserve and that being recalled to active duty was a possibility, but never dreamed that it would actually happen. I'm sure there were many non-prior service reservists at Bakalar who felt the same way.

My rank upon enlisting in the Air Force Reserve in July 1966 at Bakalar was Staff Sergeant (E-5) and current at the time of activation. If I recall, my AFSC as Flight Engineer was A43550, and I originally reported to M/Sgt Ron Wheeler upon activation. After attending Flight Engineer upgrade training with the 4413th CCTS at Lockbourne AFB, I departed on January 3, 1969 for Phan Rang AB, RVN and was on Crew #15 with Robert L. Conley.

Current photo of Joyce and Paul Werner at Paul's place of employment in Columbus, OH. TOP

John W. Lewis
Pilot, Crew #18, Tan Son Nhut

On April 11, 1968, I was flying Airborne troops from Ft. Benning, GA to Andrews AFB. When one of the crew heard over the radio that part of the 434th was activated. As my wife and daughter (age 13) and son (age 9) were experienced with call-ups (Cuba '62, Willow Freeze '63), there was no major problem at home. I had no idea of activation, things were normal. The children were in school and the wife was working as secretary at school. We lived in Dillsboro, Indiana. Job was no problem. The personnel director was a friend and ex-P47 pilot. At activation, I was a newly promoted Lt. Col. and Flight Commander. TOP

Earl Wall
Aircraft Mechanic/Crew Chief, Phan Rang

Where were you when you learned of the activation?  In the car going home from work at Allison/GM
How did you learn about the activation?  from the radio
What was your first reaction?  "Crap, we just got married and now I have to leave."
Did you have any idea thata the unit would be called to active duty? No idea at all. I was looking forward to finishing the last year of 6-year Reserve duty at home.
Where were you living at the time?  Indianapolis, IN
Were you married at the time?  Yes   
Did you have children at that time?  No
How did the activation affect you job, school, personal life? Job - GM granted military leave so I would have job when I returned. Personal - left newly married life. Put construction of new home on hold. How did you approach the activation?   Little apprehensive about going but, being 25 years old, felt it was my obligation to serve my country.
What was you rank at the time of activation? 3 striper Sgt.
What was your AFSC?  Flight Line Maintenance/Aircraft Mechanic
Who did you report to at Bakalar at that time?    Alfred "Cat" Wright - Line Supervisor/Crew Chief
How much reserve time did you have left at time of activation?  1 1/2 years
Why did you join the Air Force Reserve at Columbus? In order to complete my schooling and apprenticeship at U.S. Naval Avionics facility (critical skill). TOP

S/Sgt Philip Bender
Loadmaster-I/O, Crew #18, Nha Trang

Here are my recollections from April, 11 1968. We were on an AFTP that weekend, and found ourselves in transient quarters at Whiteman AFB, after a short flight from Chicago's airfield, after loading a gen set for Whiteman. We were listening to the radio, and getting ready for a good night's rest. Bernie W. said "Hey, listen to this". We all shut up, and listened to the newsman tell the audience about the plan to activate our unit for deployment to Vietnam. You could have heard a pin drop in that room, then a cheer went up, "YES" some of us said, and some were quiet. We were going to war, in a "High handled wheel barrow", what else, they had picked the best squadron in the Air Force to take this plane into battle. Then reality set in and then each of us got on the phone to home to break the news to family, and friends. My wife fell silent as I told her, and she then said not to worry, I would be OK and come home safe. We had much to talk about when I got home, but that is another story. The next 30 days were hectic, and we busied ourselves with all of the deatils before deployment.

S/Sgt Philip Bender
Palmetto, FL 34220 TOP